By Angela Y. Davis New York, Seven Stories Press, 2003. "Advocates of incarceration.. . If we combine Howard's emphasis on disciplined self reflection with Bentham's ideas regarding the technology of internalization designed to make surveillance and discipline the purview of the individual prisoner, we can begin to see how such a conception of the prison had far-reaching implications. Within the correctional community, however, feminism has been influenced largely by liberal constructions of gender equality. : An Open Media Book, Political Science / Public Policy / Social Policy. Many of these campaigns put forth-and continue to advance-radical critiques of state repression and violence. It is only recently that I have learned that the black miners and steelworkers I knew during my childhood inherited their place in Birmingham's industrial development from black convicts forced to do this work under the lease system. There are thus real and often quite complicated connections between the de-industrialization of the economy-a process that reached its peak during the 1980s-and the rise of mass imprisonment, which also began to spiral during the Reagan-Bush era. Society's marginal people were, as they had always been, the grist for the medical-pharmaceutical mill, and prison inmates in particular would become the raw materials for postwar profit-making and academic advancement. After twenty two years, Marist College was compelled to terminate its program at Greenhaven Prison. Because it would be too agonizing to cope with the possibility that anyone, including ourselves, could become a prisoner, we tend to think of the prison as disconnected from our own lives. Are prisons obsolete? Under English common law, a conviction for sodomy led to the punishment of being buried alive, and convicted heretics also were burned alive. Shortly after Alabama's embarrassing flirtation with the possibility of chain gangs for women, Sheriff Joe Arpaio of Maricopo County, Arizona-represented in the media as "the toughest sheriff in America"-held a press conference to announce that because he was "an equal opportunity incarcerator," he was establishing the country's first female chain gang.